Anal sex

Anal sex or anal intercourse is generally the insertion and thrusting of the erect penis into a person's anus, or anus and rectum, for sexual pleasure.[1][2][3] Other forms of anal sex include fingering, the use of sex toys for anal penetration, oral sex performed on the anus (anilingus), and pegging.[2][4][5] Though the term anal sex most commonly means penile-anal penetration,[1][2][4][6] sources sometimes use the term anal intercourse to refer exclusively to penile-anal penetration, and anal sex to refer to any form of anal sexual activity, especially between pairings as opposed to anal masturbation.[6][7]

While anal sex is commonly associated with male homosexuality, research shows that not all gay males engage in anal sex and that it is not uncommon in heterosexual relationships.[3][8][9][10] Types of anal sex can also be a part of lesbian sexual practices.[11] People may experience pleasure from anal sex by stimulation of the anal nerve endings, and orgasm may be achieved through anal penetration – by indirect stimulation of the prostate in men, indirect clitoral/G-Spot stimulation in women, and associated sensory nerves (especially the pudendal nerve).[2][3][12][13] However, people may also find anal sex painful, sometimes extremely so,[14][15] which may be primarily due to psychological factors in some cases.[16]

As with most forms of sexual activity, anal sex participants risk contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs).[17][18] Anal sex is considered a high-risk sexual practice because of the vulnerability of the anus and rectum. The anal and rectal tissues are delicate and do not provide natural lubrication, so they can easily tear and permit disease transmission, especially if lubricant is not used.[1][3][19] Anal sex without protection of a condom is considered the riskiest form of sexual activity,[19][20][21] and therefore health authorities such as the World Health Organization (WHO) recommend safe sex practices for anal sex.[17]

Often, strong views are expressed with regard to anal sex; it is controversial in various cultures, especially with regard to religion, commonly due to prohibitions against anal sex among gay men or teachings about the procreative purpose of sexual activity.[4][5][7] It may be regarded as taboo or unnatural, and is a criminal offense in some countries, punishable by corporal or capital punishment; by contrast, people also regard anal sex as a natural and valid form of sexual activity that may be as equally fulfilling as any other desired sexual expression. They may regard it as an enhancing element of their sex lives or as their primary form of sexual activity.[4][5][7]

Anatomy and stimulation

Template:See also

Male genital anatomy, showing the location of the prostate with respect to the rectum

The abundance of nerve endings in the anal region and rectum can make anal sex pleasurable for men or women.[2][3][5] The internal and external sphincter muscles control the opening and closing of the anus; these muscles, which are sensitive membranes made up of many nerve endings, facilitate pleasure or pain during anal sex.[3][5] "The inner third of the anal canal is less sensitive to touch than the outer two-thirds, but is more sensitive to pressure" and "[t]he rectum is a curved tube about eight or nine inches long and has the capacity, like the anus, to expand".[5]

Research indicates that anal sex occurs significantly less frequently than other sexual behaviors,[8][22] but its association with dominance and submission, as well as taboo, makes it an appealing stimulus to people of all sexual orientations.[5][23][24] In addition to sexual penetration by the penis, people may use sex toys such as butt plugs or anal beads, engage in fingering, anilingus, pegging, anal masturbation or fisting for anal sexual activity, and different sex positions may also be included.[5][25] Fisting is the least practiced of the activities,[26] with "[f]ew people" being "capable of relaxing enough to accommodate something as big as a fist in their anus, and there is real danger of damage to the delicate rectal tissues".[5]

In a male receptive partner, being anally penetrated can produce a pleasurable sensation due to the inserted penis rubbing or brushing against the prostate (also known as the "male G-Spot", "P-Spot" or "A-Spot") through the anal wall.[2][12][27][28] This can result in pleasurable sensations and can lead to an orgasm in some cases.[2][12][27] Prostate stimulation can produce a "deeper" orgasm, sometimes described by men as more widespread and intense, longer-lasting, and allowing for greater feelings of ecstasy than orgasm elicited by penile stimulation only.[2][27] The prostate is located next to the rectum and is the larger, more developed male homologue to the Skene's glands (which are believed to be connected to the female G-Spot).[29][30]

General statistics indicate that 70–80% of women require direct clitoral stimulation to achieve orgasm.[31][32][33][34] The clitoris is composed of more than the externally visible glans (head). With its glans or body as a whole estimated to have around 8,000 sensory nerve endings, more than any other part of the human body,[3][35][36] the clitoris surrounds the vagina somewhat like a horseshoe[36] and surrounds the urethra and anus as well;[37][38] the vagina is flanked on each side by the clitoral crura, the internal "legs" of the clitoris, which are highly sensitive and become engorged with blood when sexually aroused.[38][39][40] In addition to nerve endings present within the anus and rectum, women may find anal stimulation pleasurable due to these "legs" extending along the vaginal lips (labia minora) back to the anus.[41] Indirect stimulation of the clitoris through anal penetration may also be caused by the shared sensory nerves; especially the pudendal nerve, which gives off the inferior anal nerves and divides into two terminal branches: the perineal nerve and the dorsal nerve of the clitoris.[2]

The Gräfenberg spot, or G-Spot, is a debated area of female anatomy, particularly among doctors and researchers,[38][42][43] but it is typically described as being located behind the female pubic bone surrounding the urethra and accessible through the anterior wall of the vagina; it is considered to have tissue and nerves that are related to the clitoris.[2][38][42] Besides the shared anatomy of the aforementioned sensory nerves, orgasm by stimulation of the clitoris or G-Spot through anal penetration is made possible because of the close proximity between the vaginal cavity and the rectal cavity, allowing for general indirect stimulation.[13][26] Achieving orgasm solely by anal stimulation is rare among women.[44] Direct stimulation of the clitoris, G-Spot, or both, during anal sex can help some women enjoy the activity and reach orgasm from it.[3][13][45]

Stimulation from anal sex can additionally be affected by popular perception or portrayals of the activity, such as erotica or pornography. In pornography, anal sex is commonly portrayed as desirable, routine, without use of a personal lubricant or a condom, and painless; this can result in couples performing anal sex without care, and men and women believing that it is unusual for women, as receptive partners, to find no pleasure from the activity and instead discomfort or pain from it.[6][46][47][48] By contrast, each person's sphincter muscles react to penetration differently, the anal sphincters have tissues that are more prone to tearing, and the anus and rectum, unlike the vagina, do not provide natural lubrication for sexual penetration. Researchers say adequate application of a personal lubricant, relaxation, and communication between sexual partners are crucial to avoid pain or damage to the anus or rectum.[3][4][15][49] Ensuring that the anal area is clean and the bowel is empty, for both aesthetics and practicality, is also suggested.[4][26]

Male to female

1892 lithograph by Paul Avril depicting male-to-female anal sex

The anal sphincters are usually tighter than the pelvic muscles of the vagina, which can enhance the sexual pleasure for the inserting male during male-to-female anal intercourse because of the pressure applied to the penis.[13][23] Men may additionally enjoy the penetrative role during anal sex because of its association with dominance, because it is made more alluring by a female or general society insisting that it is forbidden, or primarily because it presents an additional option for penetration.[5][23]

While some women find being a receptive partner during anal intercourse painful or uncomfortable, or only engage in the act to please a male sexual partner, other women find the activity pleasurable or prefer it to vaginal intercourse.[6][13][50][51] The vaginal walls contain significantly fewer nerve endings than the clitoris and anus, and therefore intense sexual pleasure, including orgasm, from vaginal sexual stimulation is less likely to occur than from direct clitoral stimulation in most women.[42][43][52] However, anal sexual simulation is not necessarily more likely to result in orgasm than vaginal sexual stimulation; the types of nerves and how they interact with each other are factors,[2] as "total separation between the vagina and clitoris is mostly artificial, and often based on a misunderstanding of what, where, and how big the clitoris really is"; the clitoris surrounds the vagina and anus.[37][38][42]

In a study of heterosexual anal sex, female participants stated that direct stimulation of multiple erogenous zones simultaneously (the clitoris, the G-Spot, the anus, or other erogenous zones) enabled them to enjoy anal intercourse with much less discomfort compared to anal penetration by itself and to orgasm from it. Women who experienced orgasm during anal sex accompanied by direct stimulation of one or more of the other erogenous zones described it as more of a full-body experience compared to orgasm from direct clitoral stimulation alone.[45]

Kimberly R. McBride's Journal of Sex Research 2010 review on heterosexual anal sex uses the term anal intercourse to refer specifically to penile-anal penetration, and anal sex to refer to any form of anal sexual activity. The report suggests that anal sex is exotic among the sexual practices of some heterosexuals and that "for a certain number of heterosexuals, anal intercourse is pleasurable, exciting, and perhaps considered more intimate than vaginal sex".[6]

Anal intercourse is additionally sometimes used as a substitute for vaginal intercourse during menstruation.[5] The risk of pregnancy during anal sex is greatly reduced, as anal sex alone cannot lead to pregnancy unless sperm is somehow transported to the vaginal opening. Because of this, some couples practice anal intercourse as a form of contraception, often in the absence of a condom.[5][46][53]

There are a variety of factors that make male-to-female anal intercourse riskier for the female than for the male. For example, the risk of injury to the woman during anal intercourse is significantly higher than the risk of injury to her during vaginal intercourse because of the durability of the vaginal tissues compared to the anal tissues,[1][54][55] and the risk of transmission of HIV is higher for anal intercourse than for vaginal intercourse.[1][56][57] Additionally, if the man moves from anal intercourse immediately to vaginal intercourse without a condom or without changing it, infections can arise in the vagina due to bacteria present within the anus; these infections can also result from switching between vaginal sex and anal sex by the use of sex toys.[3][26][41]

Virginity

Male-to-female anal sex is commonly viewed as a way of preserving female virginity because it is non-procreative and does not tear the hymen; a person, especially a female, who engages in anal sex or other sexual activity with no history of having engaged in vaginal intercourse is commonly regarded among heterosexuals and researchers as not having yet experienced virginity loss.[2][58][59][60] This is sometimes termed technical virginity.[58][59][60][61] Many heterosexuals view anal sex as "fooling around" or as foreplay; this view "dates to the late 1600s, with explicit 'rules' appearing around the turn of the twentieth century, as in marriage manuals defining petting as 'literally every caress known to married couples but does not include complete sexual intercourse'".[58]

Prevalence

In 1992, a study conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) found that only 26% of men 18 to 59 and 20% of women 18 to 59 had engaged in heterosexual anal sex; a similar 2005 survey (also conducted by the U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention) found a rising incidence of anal sex relations in the American heterosexual population. The survey showed that 40% of men and 35% of women between 25 and 44 had engaged in heterosexual anal sex.[62] In terms of overall numbers of survey respondents, seven times as many women as gay men said that they engaged in anal intercourse, with this figure reflecting the larger heterosexual population size.[63] According to a study from the National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior (NSSHB) that was authored by Debby Herbenick and other researchers, although anal intercourse is reported by fewer women than other partnered sex behaviors, partnered women in the age groups between 18–49 are significantly more likely to report having anal sex in the past 90 days.[64] As of 2011, this survey provides the most up to date data about anal sex at the population level.

In a 2007 The Journal of Infectious Diseases report regarding the prevalence and correlates of heterosexual anal and oral sex among adolescents and adults in the United States, a National Survey of Family Growth (NSFG) found that 34% men and 30% women reported ever participating in heterosexual anal sex. The percentage of participants reporting heterosexual anal sex was significantly higher among 20- to 24-year-olds and peaked among 30- to 34-year-olds.[65] A 2008 survey focused on a younger demographic of teenagers and young adults, aged 15–21. It found that 16% of 1350 surveyed had had this type of sex in the previous 3 months, with condoms being used 29% of the time.[66] However, given the subject matter, the survey hypothesized the prevalence was probably underestimated.

In Kimberly R. McBride's 2010 clinical review on heterosexual anal intercourse and other forms of anal sexual activity, it is suggested that changing norms may affect the frequency of heterosexual anal sex. McBride and her colleagues investigated the prevalence of non-intercourse anal sex behaviors among a sample of men (n=1,299) and women (n=1,919) compared to anal intercourse experience and found that 51% of men and 43% of women had participated in at least one act of oral–anal sex, manual–anal sex, or anal sex toy use.[6] The report states the majority of men (n=631) and women (n=856) who reported heterosexual anal intercourse in the past 12 months were in exclusive, monogamous relationships: 69% and 73%, respectively.[6]

Figures for prevalence can vary among different demographics, regions and nationalities. A 1999 South Korean survey of 586 women, 3.5% of respondents reported having had this type of sex.[67] By contrast, a 2001 French survey of five hundred female respondents concluded that a total of 29% had engaged in this practice, with one third of these confirming to have enjoyed the experience.[68]

Figures for the prevalence of sexual behavior can also fluctuate over time. Edward O. Laumann's 1992 survey, reported in The Social Organization of Sexuality: Sexual Practices in the United States, found that about 20% of heterosexuals had engaged in male-to-female anal sex. Sex researcher Alfred Kinsey, working in the 1940s, had found that number to be closer to 40% at the time. A researcher from the University of British Columbia in 2005 put the number of heterosexuals who have engaged in this practice at between 30% and 50%.[69] According to Columbia University's health website Go Ask Alice!: "Studies indicate that about 25 percent of heterosexual couples have had anal sex at least once, and 10 percent regularly have anal penetration."[8] The increase of anal sexual activity among heterosexuals has also been linked to the increase in anal pornography, especially if a person views it more regularly than a person who does not.[4][47][48]

Male to male

19th-century erotic interpretation of Hadrian and Antinous (detail), by Paul Avril

Historically, anal sex has been commonly associated with male homosexuality. However, many gay men and men who have sex with men in general (those who identify as gay, bisexual, heterosexual or have not identified their sexual identity) do not engage in anal sex.[8][10][70][71] Among men who have anal sex with other men, the insertive partner may be referred to as the top and the one being penetrated may be referred to as the bottom. Those who enjoy either role may be referred to as versatile.[72][73]

Gay men who prefer anal sex may view it as "[their] version of intercourse"[24] and a natural expression of intimacy capable of providing great pleasure.[70] The notion that it might resonate with gay men with the same emotional significance that vaginal sex resonates with heterosexuals has also been considered.[74] Some men who have sex with men, however, believe that being a receptive partner during anal sex questions their masculinity.[75][76]

Men who have sex with men may also prefer to engage in frot or other forms of mutual masturbation because they find it more pleasurable or more affectionate, to preserve technical virginity, or as safe sex alternatives to anal sex,[70][72][77][78] while other frot advocates denounce anal sex as degrading to the receptive partner and unnecessarily risky.[74][77][79]

Prevalence

Reports with regard to the prevalence of anal sex among gay men in the West have varied over time. Magnus Hirschfeld, in his 1914 work, The Homosexuality of Men and Women, reported the rate of anal sex among gay men surveyed to be 8%, the least favored of all the practices documented.[80] By the 1950s in the United Kingdom, it was thought that about 15% of gay males had anal sex.[81]

Similar to the Hirschfeld study, scholars state that oral sex and mutual masturbation are more common than anal stimulation among gay men in long-term relationships.[8][70] They say that anal intercourse is generally more popular among gay male couples than among heterosexual couples, but that "it ranks behind oral sex and mutual masturbation" among both sexual orientations in prevalence.[22] Wellings et al. reported that "[t]he equation of 'homosexual' with 'anal' sex among men is common among lay and health professionals alike" and that "[y]et an Internet survey of 18,000 MSM across Europe (EMIS, 2011) showed that oral sex was most commonly practised, followed by mutual masturbation, with anal intercourse in third place".[10]

Various older studies on male-to-male anal sex differ significantly. The 1994 Laumann study suggests that 80% of gay men practice anal sex and 20% never engage in it at all.[82] A survey in The Advocate in 1994 indicated that 46% of gay men preferred to penetrate their partners, while 43% preferred to be the receptive partner.[72] A survey conducted from 1994 to 1997 in San Francisco by the Stop AIDS Project indicated that over the course of the study, among men who have sex with men instead of solely gay men, the proportion engaging in anal sex increased from 57.6% to 61.2%.[83] The National Institutes of Health (NIH), with their report published in the BMJ in 1999, stated that two thirds of gay men have anal sex.[9] Other sources suggest that roughly three-fourths of gay men have anal sex at one time or another in their lives, with an equal percentage participating as tops and bottoms.[72] WebMD reports that "[a]n estimated 90% of men who have sex with men" practice receptive anal intercourse.[1]

Pain

Pain during receptive anal sex is formally known as anodyspareunia.[15] One study found that about 12% of gay men find it too painful to pursue receptive anal sex, and concluded that the perception of anal sex as painful is just as likely to be psychologically or emotionally based as it is to be physically based.[84] Another study that examined pain during insertive and receptive anal sex in gay men found that 3% of tops (insertive partners) and 16% of bottoms (receptive partners) reported significant pain.[85] Factors predictive of pain during anal sex include inadequate lubrication, feeling tense or anxious, lack of stimulation, as well as lack of social ease with being gay and being closeted. Research has found that psychological factors can in fact be the primary contributors to the experience of pain during anal intercourse and that adequate communication between sexual partners can prevent it, countering the notion that pain is always inevitable during anal sex.[15][16][84][85]

Female to male

A woman wearing a strap-on dildo about to engage in anal sex with a man.

Women may sexually stimulate a man's anus by fingering the exterior or interior areas of the anus; they may also stimulate the perineum (which, for males, is between the base of the scrotum and the anus), massage the prostate or engage in anilingus.[5][26][86] Sex toys, such as a dildo, may also be used.[5][26] The practice of a woman penetrating a man's anus with a strap-on dildo for sexual activity is called pegging.[25][87]

Commonly, heterosexual men reject the idea of being receptive partners during anal sex because they believe it is a feminine act, can make them vulnerable, or contradicts their sexual orientation (for example, that it is indicative that they are gay).[26][76] National Institutes of Health (NIH) information published in the BMJ in 1999, however, states:

There are little published data on how many heterosexual men would like their anus to be sexually stimulated in a heterosexual relationship. Anecdotally, it is a substantial number. What data we do have almost all relate to penetrative sexual acts, and the superficial contact of the anal ring with fingers or the tongue is even less well documented but may be assumed to be a common sexual activity for men of all sexual orientations.[9]

Reece et al. reported in 2010 that receptive anal intercourse is infrequent among men overall, stating that "an estimated 7% of men 14 to 19 years old reported being a receptive partner during anal intercourse".[88]

Female to female

A woman performing anilingus (anal–oral sex) on another woman.

With regard to lesbian sexual practices, anal sex includes fingering, use of a dildo or other sex toys, or anilingus.[11][89] Some lesbians do not like anal sex,[90] and anilingus is more rarely practiced among female same-sex couples.[91]

There is less research on anal sexual activity among women who have sex with women compared to couples of other sexual orientations. In 1987, a non-scientific study (Munson) was conducted of more than 100 members of a lesbian social organization in Colorado. When asked what techniques they used in their last ten sexual encounters, lesbians in their 30s were twice as likely as other age groups to engage in anal stimulation (with a finger or dildo).[3] While author Tom Boellstorff, when particularly examining anal sex among gay and lesbian individuals in Indonesia, stated that he had not heard of oral-anal contact or anal penetration as recognized forms of lesbian sexuality but assume they take place,[92] author Felice Newman, in The Whole Lesbian Sex Book, cites anal sex as a part of lesbian sexual practices.[11]

Health risks

Infection

Anal sex can expose participants to two principal dangers: infections due to the high number of infectious microorganisms not found elsewhere on the body, and physical damage to the anus and rectum due to their fragility.[19][21] Increased experimentation with anal sex by people without sound knowledge about risks and what safety measures do and do not work may be linked to an increase in sexually transmitted infections (STIs/STDs); for example, teenagers may consider vaginal intercourse riskier than anal intercourse and believe that a STI can only result from the former activity.[93]

Mucous membranes of the rectum.

Unprotected penile-anal penetration, colloquially known as barebacking,[94] carries a higher risk of passing on STIs because the anal sphincter is a delicate, easily-torn tissue that can tear and provide an entry for pathogens.[19][21] The high concentration of white blood cells around the rectum, together with the risk of tearing and the rectum's function to absorb fluid, places those who engage in the practice at high risk of STIs. Use of condoms, ample lubrication to reduce the risk of tearing,[3][49] and safer sex practices in general, reduce the risk.[95] However, a condom can break or come off during anal sex, so both sex partners must remain watchful during sex and there is still some risk if one or both partners carries a sexually transmissible infection.[21]

Unprotected receptive anal sex is the sex act most likely to result in HIV transmission.[19][20][21][96] Other infections that can be transmitted by unprotected anal sex are human papillomavirus (HPV) (which can increase risk of anal cancer[97][98]); typhoid fever;[99] amoebiasis; chlamydia;[20] cryptosporidiosis; E. coli infections; giardiasis; gonorrhea;[20] hepatitis A; hepatitis B; hepatitis C; herpes simplex;[20] Kaposi's sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (HHV-8);[100] lymphogranuloma venereum; Mycoplasma hominis; Mycoplasma genitalium; pubic lice;[20] salmonellosis; shigella; syphilis;[20] tuberculosis; and Ureaplasma urealyticum.[101]

Cancer

Anal cancer is relatively rare, accounting for about 1% of gastrointestinal malignancies, but as many as 4,000 new cases can be diagnosed within a year in the United States, according to the American Cancer Society.[97][98] Most cases of anal cancer are related to infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV).[97][98] Anal sex alone does not cause anal cancer; the risk of anal cancer through anal sex is attributed to HPV infection, which is often contracted through unprotected anal sex. The incidence of the disease has jumped 160% in men and 78% in women in the last thirty years, according to a 2004 American study. The increase is attributed to changing trends in sexual behavior (such as a history of multiple sex partners, fifteen or more, or receptive anal sex) and smoking. If a current smoker, there is a fourfold increase in risk, though independent of other behavioral risk factors, such as sexual activity. Receptive anal sex increases the incidence sevenfold.[98]

Among the female control group studied, 21.5% had reported practicing anal sex, a significant increase from a previous case-control study by epidemiologist Janet Daling of Fred Hutchinson's Public Health Sciences Division) and her colleagues, published in 1987, in which 11% of female controls had reported ever having anal sex. This and other studies also indicate that gay or bisexual sex among men is on the rise, which may account for the increase in anal cancer.[98] "The sharpest increase was among African American men, whose incidence of anal cancer has more than doubled in the past three decades. Black men also had a lower survival rate from the disease." The study reported that the five-year survival rate for black men with early stage disease was 62% as compared to 79% for white men with localized cancer. However, the survey also reported that black men were more likely than white men to report having had intercourse with another male in the last year. Regarding all the increases, whether or not sexual practices have changed, Daling concluded, "[I]t also could be that people are just more likely to discuss their sexual behavior these days."[98]

Physical damage

Physical damage to the rectum and anus can manifest as generalized ano-rectal trauma, anal fissures, rectal prolapse, and exacerbating hemorrhoids Adequate lubrication and preparation reduces the risk of physical trauma, while the risk increases with use of alcohol or other drugs that dull sensitivity.

Loss of bowel control is not a likely result of anal sex, but may be caused by repeated injury or the insertion of large objects. Kegel exercises have been recommended to maintain muscle tone by a speaker at the Society for the Scientific Study of Sexuality and the American Association of Sex Educators, who noted he had never personally observed "loosening" in any of his patients.

A 1993 study published in the Journal of the Royal Society of Medicine found that fourteen out of a sample of forty men receiving anal intercourse experienced episodes of frequent anal incontinence.[102] However, a 1997 study published in the American Journal of Gastroenterology found no difference in levels of incontinence between homosexual men who engaged in anal sex and heterosexual men who did not, and criticized the earlier study for its inclusion of flatulence in its definition of incontinence.[103]

Cultural views

Suzuki Harunobu, A shunga print depicting an older and a younger man

Historically, a number of cultures have recorded the practice of anal intercourse, especially between men.

Ancient and non-Western cultures

The term Greek love has long been used to refer to the practice, and in modern times, "doing it the Greek way" is sometimes used as slang for anal sex. However, homosexual anal sex was not a universally accepted practice in Ancient Greece. It was the target of jokes in surviving comedies; Aristophanes mockingly alludes to the practice, claiming that "Most citizens are europroktoi (wide-arsed) now".[104] While pedagogic pederasty was an essential element in the education of male youths, these relationships, at least in Athens and Sparta, were expected to steer clear of penetrative sex of any kind. There are very few works of pottery or other art that display anal sex between older men and boys, let alone with adult men. Most such works depict fondling or intercrural sex, which was not condemned for violating and feminizing the boys. Other sources make it clear that the practice was criticized as shameful,[105] and seen as a form of hubris.[106]Template:Full

Two Roman males on the Warren Cup, British Museum

In later Roman-era Greek poetry, anal sex became a common topos, represented as taking place with "eligible" youths: those who had attained the proper age but had not yet become adults. Seducing youngsters into the practice was considered very shameful for the adult, and having such relations with a male who was no longer adolescent was considered more shameful for the young male than for the one mounting him. Greek courtesans, or hetaerae, are said to have frequently practiced heterosexual anal intercourse as a means of preventing pregnancy.[107] The acceptability of anal sex thus varied with the time-period and the location, as Ancient Greece spanned a long time and stretched over three continents and two major seas.

For a male citizen to take the passive (or receptive) role in anal intercourse was condemned in Rome as an act of impudicitia (immodesty or unchastity). Free men, however, frequently took the active role with a young slave, known as a catamite or puer delicatus. The Romans thought of anal sex as something specifically "Greek", although Roman men often availed themselves of their own slaves or others in this way.[108]Template:Full

In Japan, records (including detailed shunga) show that at least some men in relationships with other men did engage in penetrative anal intercourse.

Man and woman having anal sex. Ceramic, Moche Culture. 300 C.E. Larco Museum Collection

Evidence suggestive of widespread heterosexual anal intercourse in a pre-modern culture can be found in the erotic vases, or stirrup-spout pots, made by the Moche people of Peru; in a survey[109] of a collection of these pots, it was found that 31 percent of them depicted heterosexual anal intercourse significantly more than any other sex act. Moche pottery of this type belonged to the world of the dead, which was believed to be a reversal of life. Therefore, the reverse of common practices was often portrayed. The Larco Museum houses an erotic gallery in which this pottery is showcased.[110]

The 19th century anthropologist Richard Francis Burton theorized that there is a geographical Sotadic zone wherein penetrative intercourse between men is particularly prevalent and accepted; moreover he was one of the first writers to advance the premise that such an orientation is biologically determined.[111]

Western cultures

In many Western countries, anal sex has generally been taboo since the Middle Ages[112] when heretical movements were sometimes attacked by accusations that their members practised anal sex among themselves.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Citation needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= Template:Category handlerTemplate:Category handler[citation needed] }} At that time the mainstream Christian clergy was not celibate, but the highest orders of some heretical sects were, leading to rumors that their celibacy was a sign of their attraction to members of the same sex.{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Citation needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= Template:Category handlerTemplate:Category handler[citation needed] }} The term buggery originated in medieval Europe as an insult used to describe the rumoured same-sex sexual practices of the heretics from a sect originating in Bulgaria, where its followers were called bogomils{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Citation needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= Template:Category handlerTemplate:Category handler[citation needed] }}; when they spread out of the country they were called buggres (from the ethnonym Bulgars).{{ safesubst:#invoke:Unsubst||$N=Citation needed |date=__DATE__ |$B= Template:Category handlerTemplate:Category handler[citation needed] }} Another term for the practice, more archaic, is "pedicate" from the Latin pedicare, with the same meaning.[113]

The Renaissance poet Pietro Aretino advocated the practice in his Sonetti Lussuriosi (Lust Sonnets).[114]

While men who engaged in homosexual relationships were generally suspected of engaging in anal sex, many such individuals did not. Among these, in recent times, have been André Gide, who found it repulsive;[115]Template:Full and Noël Coward, who had a horror of disease, and asserted when young that "I'd never do anything – well the disgusting thing they do – because I know I could get something wrong with me".[116]Template:Full

Religion

Template:Refimprove section

François-Rolland Elluin, Sodomites provoking divine wrath, from Le pot-pourri (1781)

Template:Further

Ottoman illustration depicting two young men having sex (from Sawaqub al-Manaquib)

Judaism

The Mishneh Torah, a text considered authoritative by Orthodox Jewish sects,[117] states "since a man’s wife is permitted to him, he may act with her in any manner whatsoever. He may have intercourse with her whenever he so desires and kiss any organ of her body he wishes, and he may have intercourse with her naturally or unnaturally [traditionally, unnaturally refers to anal and oral sex], provided that he does not expend semen to no purpose. Nevertheless, it is an attribute of piety that a man should not act in this matter with levity and that he should sanctify himself at the time of intercourse."[118]

Christianity

Template:Unreferenced section In Christian countries,Template:Clarify anal sex is sometimes referred to euphemistically as the peccatum contra naturam (the sin against nature, after Thomas Aquinas) or Sodomitica luxuria (sodomitical lusts, in one of Charlemagne's ordinances), or peccatum illud horribile, inter christianos non-nominandum (that horrible sin that among Christians is not to be named).

Islam

Liwat, or the sin of Lot's people, is officially prohibited by most Islamic sects. There are parts of the Qur'an which talk about smiting on Sodom and Gomorrah, and this is thought to be a reference to unnatural sex, and so there are hadith and Islamic laws which prohibit it. Same sex male practitioners of anal relations are called luti or lutiyin in plural and are seen as criminals in the same way that a thief is a criminal, meaning that they are giving in to a universal temptation.

Buddhism

Template:Further The most common formulation of Buddhist ethics is the Five Precepts. These precepts take the form of voluntary, personal undertakings, not divine mandate or instruction. The third of the Precepts is "To refrain from committing sexual misconduct".[119] However, "sexual misconduct" (Sanskrit: Kāmesu micchācāra literally "sense gratifications arising from the 5 senses"") is subject to interpretation relative to the social norms of the followers.[120] Buddhism, in its fundamental form, does not define what is right and what is wrong in absolute terms for lay followers. Therefore the interpretation of what kinds of sexual activity are acceptable for a layman is not a religious matter as far as Buddhism is concerned.[121]


See Also

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